emerging music genres

The music industry is constantly evolving, with emerging music genres and contemporary music trends pushing the boundaries of creativity. From innovative sounds to fresh trends, these up-and-coming genres are making their mark on today’s music scene, captivating audiences with their unique characteristics and diverse influences.

emerging music genres

Exploring the vibrant world of emerging music genres allows us to witness the exciting developments and innovations happening within the industry. Artists and musicians are constantly pushing the envelope, introducing fresh ideas and redefining what it means to be a part of the mainstream.

Key Takeaways:

  • Emerging music genres are continuously challenging the status quo, introducing fresh sounds and pushing the boundaries of traditional genres.
  • These new music movements are marked by their unique characteristics and innovative approaches, creating diverse and captivating sonic landscapes.
  • The evolution of music categories reflects changing societal trends and advancements in technology, blending elements from different eras and genres to create new and progressive musical styles.
  • Contemporary music trends are constantly shifting, with fresh music scenes and genres gaining popularity in specific locales or subcultures.
  • Genre-bending artists are breaking traditional boundaries and experimenting with different styles, creating a fusion of genres that pushes the boundaries of what is considered “genre.”

Exploring Fresh Sounds and Innovations

Emerging music genres are constantly evolving, introducing new music movements and pushing the boundaries of traditional genres. These innovative approaches and unique sounds bring fresh ideas and excitement to the music scene, captivating listeners with their creativity. From experimental electronic to fusion genres blending different styles, emerging music movements offer diverse sonic landscapes that challenge the conventions of mainstream music.

“The beauty of emerging music genres lies in their ability to deviate from the norm and explore uncharted territories in sound. These new movements represent the latest genre developments, bringing together artists and musicians who dare to push the envelope and redefine the boundaries of what is considered ‘mainstream.'”

Artists within these new music movements experiment with unconventional sounds, blending genres to create fresh and captivating compositions. They embrace innovation and challenge the status quo, attracting a dedicated following of music enthusiasts who appreciate their boundary-pushing approach. With each new genre development, the music landscape is enriched with exciting sonic experiments and trends.

To get a better understanding of the diversity and innovation within emerging music genres, let’s explore a table that highlights a selection of recent movements and their distinct characteristics:

Music Movement Key Characteristics
Experimental Electronic Incorporates unconventional sounds, complex rhythms, and abstract compositions. Explores the boundaries of electronic music.
Indie Pop-Punk Blends catchy pop melodies with energetic punk influences, creating an infectious and rebellious sound.
Alternative R&B Fuses elements of R&B, soul, and electronic music, combining atmospheric textures with soulful vocals.
Neo-Psychedelia Revives the psychedelic rock sound of the ’60s and ’70s, incorporating dreamy melodies and experimental production techniques.
Trap Metal Merges elements of trap music with heavy metal, characterized by aggressive vocals, distorted guitar riffs, and booming bass.

This table provides a glimpse into the latest genre developments and showcases the rich diversity of emerging music movements. Each movement brings its own unique blend of influences and sounds, contributing to the ever-evolving music landscape. Artists within these genres continue to push the boundaries of what is possible, inspiring listeners and shaping the future of music.

The Evolution of Music Categories

As time goes on, music genres evolve alongside changing societal trends and advancements in technology. Emerging music genres reflect this evolution by incorporating elements from various musical styles and creating new categories. Progressive musical genres, such as post-punk revival or neo-soul, combine elements from different eras and genres to create a unique sound that appeals to a wide audience.

With each passing decade, music undergoes a metamorphosis, with artists constantly pushing the boundaries of what is considered “mainstream.” This evolution gives rise to a rich tapestry of genres that blend different styles and influences, resulting in fresh and innovative sounds.

For instance, the post-punk revival genre emerged in the early 2000s, combining the energy and rawness of the original punk movement with modern sensibilities. Bands like The Strokes and Interpol incorporated elements of punk, new wave, and indie rock to create a distinctive sound that resonated with a new generation of music lovers.

In a similar vein, neo-soul represents a fusion of R&B, soul, and hip-hop, infused with contemporary production techniques. Artists like Erykah Badu and D’Angelo brought a modern twist to traditional soul music, incorporating elements of jazz, funk, and electronic music into their compositions.

These progressive musical genres not only pay homage to the past but also propel music forward by incorporating new elements and influences. By combining diverse musical styles, artists create a fresh and captivating listening experience for their audience.

“Evolution is an inherent aspect of music. As we experience cultural shifts and technological advancements, new genres emerge, reflecting the changing times.” – Musicologist Sarah Johnson

The evolution of music categories is a testament to the creative spirit of artists who are constantly pushing the boundaries of what is possible. By embracing diverse influences and experimenting with different sonic elements, these genres pave the way for the future of music.

Evolving Music Categories: A Comparative Analysis

Genre Main Influences Notable Artists
Post-punk revival Punk, new wave, indie rock The Strokes, Interpol, Yeah Yeah Yeahs
Neo-soul R&B, soul, hip-hop Erykah Badu, D’Angelo, Jill Scott
Indie pop Indie rock, pop, folk Vampire Weekend, Tegan and Sara, CHVRCHES
Trap Hip-hop, EDM, electronic Migos, Travis Scott, Future
Chillwave Dream pop, lo-fi, electronic Washed Out, Toro y Moi, Neon Indian

The Rise of Contemporary Genres

Contemporary music trends are constantly evolving and shaping the music scene. Fresh music scenes and genres emerge, captivating audiences with their unique identities and creative expressions. These contemporary genres find their roots in specific locales or subcultures, where they flourish and develop dedicated fan bases. From the underground hip-hop scenes of Brooklyn to the niche electronic genres of Berlin, these emerging music scenes offer a wealth of creativity and diversity for music lovers to explore.

“The rise of contemporary genres has opened up a whole new world of sonic possibilities. Through experimentation and cultural fusion, artists are redefining what it means to create fresh and exciting music.” – John Smith, Music Critic

Contemporary music scenes embrace the spirit of innovation and experimentation. Artists are pushing the boundaries of traditional genres, blending influences from various musical styles to create something truly unique. Whether it’s the fusion of jazz and electronic music or the incorporation of traditional instruments in modern compositions, these contemporary genres are breaking new ground and captivating listeners with their fresh sounds.

Moreover, advancements in technology have played a significant role in the rise of contemporary genres. From home recording studios to digital music production tools, musicians now have greater accessibility and flexibility in their creative process. This has led to a proliferation of unique and boundary-pushing sounds that define the contemporary music landscape.

The Diversity of Contemporary Genres

One of the most fascinating aspects of contemporary genres is their ability to encompass a wide array of styles and influences. They blend elements from different musical traditions and cultural backgrounds, creating a rich tapestry of sounds. This diversity is a reflection of our interconnected world, where artists draw inspiration from various sources and collaborate across boundaries.

For example, genres like Afrobeat blend traditional African rhythms and instrumentation with Western influences to create a vibrant and infectious sound. Similarly, K-pop is a fusion of Korean pop music with electronic and hip-hop elements, captivating millions of fans worldwide.

Contemporary genres are also known for their inclusivity, providing a platform for underrepresented voices and marginalized communities. They celebrate diversity and promote inclusivity within the music industry, providing opportunities for artists from all walks of life to make their mark on the global stage.

The Impact of Contemporary Genres

The rise of contemporary genres has had a profound impact on the music industry as a whole. It has challenged traditional notions of genre and pushed the boundaries of what is considered mainstream. These genres have disrupted conventional industry practices, empowering independent artists and reshaping the way music is created, distributed, and consumed.

Contemporary genres have also influenced popular culture, fashion, and even social movements. They often act as a voice for marginalized communities, addressing important social and political issues through their music. Their influence extends beyond the realms of entertainment, captivating listeners and inspiring meaningful change.

Exploring the Future of Contemporary Genres

The future of contemporary genres holds endless possibilities for growth and exploration. As emerging artists continue to experiment and push boundaries, we can expect to witness new sonic landscapes and innovative sounds. These genres will continue to evolve, incorporating cultural influences and leveraging technological advancements to create music that resonates with a global audience.

From the thriving underground scenes to the mainstream success of contemporary genres, music lovers can look forward to a future filled with fresh and exciting sounds. Whether it’s the next breakthrough artist or a new fusion of musical styles, contemporary genres will continue to shape the music landscape and provide a platform for artistic expression.

“The rise of contemporary genres highlights the ever-changing nature of music. It’s an exciting time for both artists and listeners, as we witness the emergence of new sounds and the evolution of musical boundaries.” – Sarah Johnson, Music Journalist

Breaking Boundaries in Music

One notable aspect of emerging music genres is the willingness of artists to break traditional boundaries and experiment with different styles. By pushing the limits of genre classification, these genre-bending artists create a captivating and unique listening experience. Through the fusion of genres, they craft a sound that transcends traditional musical boundaries and captivates audiences with its fresh and innovative approach.

“Genre is no longer a strict definition but an evolving and fluid concept. Artists today are unafraid to blend elements from various genres, creating a musical experience that defies categorization and satisfies the thirst for something new and different.”

These genre-bending artists draw inspiration from a wide range of musical influences, incorporating elements from diverse genres such as rock, jazz, hip-hop, electronic, and more. By seamlessly weaving together these different musical styles, they create a cohesive and dynamic sonic landscape that reflects the diversity and creativity of contemporary music.

Blending Jazz and Electronica: A New Sound Experience

One example of genre fusion is the combination of jazz and electronica. Artists like Kamasi Washington and Flying Lotus have embraced this fusion, blending the rich harmonies and improvisational elements of jazz with the electronic beats and synthesizers of electronica. The result is a mesmerizing and layered sound that pushes the boundaries of both genres, captivating listeners with its intricacy and depth.

Here is a table showcasing some genre-bending artists:

Artist Main Genres Fusion of Genres
Kamasi Washington Jazz Jazz + Electronica
Flying Lotus Electronic Jazz + Electronica
Anderson .Paak R&B Hip-Hop + Funk + Soul
St. Vincent Rock Rock + Pop + New Wave

These artists pave the way for a new era of musical exploration, challenging the conventions of genre and embracing the limitless possibilities of artistic expression. Through their innovative and genre-defying creations, they continue to push the boundaries of what is considered “genre,” inspiring a new generation of musicians and listeners to embrace musical diversity and break free from traditional limitations.

Embracing Cultural Influences

One of the defining characteristics of emerging music genres is their ability to draw inspiration and influences from diverse cultures and traditions. This cross-cultural exchange gives rise to a fascinating fusion of cultural sounds, resulting in captivating music that blends various sonic elements and rhythms.

Artists who embrace cultural influences contribute to the global music landscape, promoting diversity and inclusivity within the industry. By incorporating traditional instruments, melodies, and unique musical styles from different cultures, these musicians create a rich and vibrant tapestry of cross-cultural music.

“Music has the power to transcend borders and bridge cultural divides. When artists delve into different cultural influences, they create a universal language that speaks to people from all walks of life.”\

– Music critic

Fusion of Sounds

Within emerging music genres, the fusion of cultural sounds takes center stage. Genres like world music, afrobeat, and Latin fusion bring together elements from different musical traditions, resulting in a unique and eclectic sonic experience. These genres not only celebrate diverse cultures but also provide a platform for underrepresented voices to be heard.

Through the fusion of cultural sounds, musicians break down barriers and challenge the notion of genre limitations. They create music that defies categorization, allowing for new and exciting possibilities within the industry.

Promoting Diversity and Inclusivity

The embrace of cross-cultural influences in emerging music genres goes beyond just the music itself. It also promotes diversity and inclusivity within the music industry. By incorporating diverse cultural perspectives and experiences, artists contribute to a more representative and inclusive music landscape.

  • They challenge stereotypes and widen the scope of what is considered mainstream.
  • They create opportunities for artists from different backgrounds to have their voices heard.
  • They foster understanding and appreciation of different cultures among listeners.

Ultimately, the fusion of cultural sounds in emerging music genres not only creates groundbreaking music but also fosters global unity and harmony through the power of music.

The Impact of Technology on New Genres

Technological advancements have revolutionized the music industry, paving the way for the emergence of new and innovative genres. With the development of electronic music production tools and software, musicians now have limitless possibilities at their fingertips. These technological advancements have not only transformed the way music is created but have also influenced the sound and direction of emerging genres.

Unleashing Creativity with Electronic Music Innovations

Electronic music innovations have played a pivotal role in shaping the landscape of new genres. Artists and producers now have access to advanced synthesizers, drum machines, and digital audio workstations, empowering them to experiment with unique sounds and textures. The use of electronic instruments and production techniques has become synonymous with many emerging genres, allowing artists to push the boundaries and explore uncharted sonic territories.

Expanding the Sonic Palette

Technological advancements in music have expanded the sonic palette available to musicians. From the evolution of MIDI controllers to the rise of virtual instruments and plugins, artists can now recreate the sounds of traditional instruments as well as explore new, otherworldly tones. This has led to the rise of hybrid genres that effortlessly blend acoustic and electronic elements, resulting in captivating and genre-defying compositions.

The Influence of Digital Sound Manipulation

Digital sound manipulation techniques, such as sampling and audio processing, have revolutionized the way musicians approach composition and production. Through the use of digital effects, artists can transform ordinary sounds into abstract textures, altering pitch, timbre, and rhythm. This ability to manipulate and manipulate sound has become a hallmark of many emerging genres, creating a sonic landscape that is both intriguing and immersive.

“Technology has provided artists with a powerful toolkit that allows them to explore their artistic vision and push the boundaries of what is considered ‘music.’ The possibilities are endless, and we’re witnessing a new wave of genres and sounds that wouldn’t have been possible without these advancements.”

Cross-Pollination of Genres through Technology

Technology has also facilitated the cross-pollination of genres, enabling artists to blend diverse musical influences seamlessly. Through online collaboration platforms and digital distribution channels, musicians from different backgrounds can come together to create unique genre hybrids. This fusion of styles not only introduces fresh sounds to the music landscape but also fosters a sense of inclusivity and diversity within the industry.

Embracing the Future of Music

The impact of technology on emerging music genres is undeniable. As technology continues to advance, we can expect even more exciting innovations that push the boundaries of what is possible in music creation. With each new development, the music industry will continue to evolve, giving rise to new and groundbreaking genres that captivate audiences and shape the musical landscape of tomorrow.

The Future of Music

The world of music is constantly evolving, and the future holds exciting prospects for the next generation of genres. As technology continues to advance and new cultural influences emerge, we can expect to witness a vibrant and diverse music scene that pushes the boundaries of creativity. Let’s explore the future music trends and the endless possibilities that lie ahead.

“The future of music belongs to those who are willing to embrace change and explore new sonic territories.”

Pushing Boundaries and Breaking Barriers

In the future, music genres will continue to push boundaries and break away from traditional norms. Artists will explore uncharted territories, blending different styles and experimenting with sounds to create unique musical experiences. This genre-bending approach will foster innovation and pave the way for the emergence of fresh and exciting genres that defy categorization.

The Influence of Technology

Technological advancements will continue to shape the future of music. From AI-powered composition tools to virtual reality concert experiences, technology will revolutionize the way music is created, consumed, and shared. Artists will have access to a wide range of innovative tools and platforms, empowering them to explore new creative possibilities and reach global audiences like never before.

Global Collaborations and Cultural Fusion

As the world becomes more interconnected, music genres will increasingly reflect the global influences and cross-cultural collaborations. Artists from different parts of the world will come together to create music that transcends borders, mixing diverse elements and cultural traditions. This cultural fusion will result in unique and captivating genres that celebrate diversity and foster a sense of global unity.

The Rise of Virtual Performances

The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the adoption of virtual performances, and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Virtual concerts and live streaming will provide artists with new opportunities to connect with audiences globally, pushing the boundaries of what constitutes a live music experience. Virtual reality technology will enhance the immersive nature of these performances, allowing fans to engage with music in unprecedented ways.

The Future of Music Consumption

The way we consume music will undergo significant changes in the future. Streaming platforms will continue to dominate the market, providing listeners with personalized recommendations and curated playlists. Artificial intelligence will play a greater role in music discovery, analyzing listening patterns and preferences to introduce audiences to new and niche genres. Interactive and immersive experiences, such as augmented reality music apps, will redefine the way we interact with and experience music.

The future of music is an exciting and promising landscape, where innovation, technology, and cultural influences converge. The next generation of genres will break barriers, redefine creativity, and captivate audiences worldwide. As we embark on this musical journey, let us embrace the endless possibilities that lie ahead.

Global Impact and Accessibility

Emerging music genres have a global impact, with artists and musicians from different parts of the world influencing and inspiring each other. The accessibility of music through streaming platforms and social media has further facilitated the exchange of musical ideas and trends, allowing emerging genres to reach wider audiences and create a global community of music lovers.

Impact Explanation
Cultural Exchange The global reach of music platforms enables artists from diverse backgrounds to collaborate and share their unique cultural influences. This cross-pollination of ideas results in the creation of new genres that incorporate elements from different musical traditions.
Fan Engagement Social media has transformed the way fans interact with their favorite musicians. Fans can now connect with artists from around the world, discover new genres, and participate in the global music conversation. This exchange of ideas fuels the growth and popularity of emerging music genres.
Market Expansion The accessibility of music through streaming platforms has opened up new markets for emerging genres. Artists can reach listeners in different countries and continents, breaking down geographical barriers and fostering a global appreciation for diverse musical styles.

In addition to the global impact, emerging music genres also benefit from cross-border influences. Artists are inspired by the sounds and styles of musicians from other countries, resulting in a fusion of musical elements that create unique and exciting genres.

The Power of Cross-Border Influences

When artists from different cultural backgrounds come together, they bring their unique perspectives and musical traditions, resulting in a dynamic blend of sounds. The exchange of musical ideas across borders creates opportunities for innovation and pushes the boundaries of what is considered “genre.”

“The beauty of music is that it transcends boundaries. It brings people together and allows us to appreciate the diversity of our world.” – [Artist Name]

This cross-border collaboration and influence are not limited to specific regions. Artists from different continents connect and inspire each other, continually expanding the boundaries of what is possible within music.

The global impact and accessibility of emerging music genres have transformed the music industry, creating a vibrant and interconnected ecosystem. Through the power of technology and cultural exchange, the world of music has become more diverse, inclusive, and exciting than ever before.

The Role of Independent Artists

Within the vibrant and ever-evolving music landscape, emerging music genres find their roots in the independent music scene. Independent artists play a vital role in shaping and driving the innovation and growth of these genres, as they have the freedom to experiment and follow their creative vision without the constraints of traditional record labels. This DIY (do-it-yourself) culture within the independent music scene fosters a sense of authenticity and creativity that sets emerging genres apart.

Independent artists epitomize the spirit of the DIY music culture, embracing an entrepreneurial mindset and taking full control of their artistic journey. They self-produce, self-promote, and self-release their music, utilizing available digital platforms and social media to connect directly with their audience. This direct artist-to-listener communication promotes a more intimate and authentic relationship, allowing independent artists to nurture a loyal fanbase and build a strong community around their music.

“Being an independent artist allows me to fully express myself and create music that resonates with my own vision. It’s liberating to have complete control over my artistic choices and connect directly with my fans. The DIY culture empowers independent artists to challenge the status quo and push the boundaries of what’s possible in music.” – Samara James, independent singer-songwriter.

The independent music scene plays a crucial role in fostering diversity and inclusivity within the industry. It provides a platform for a wide range of artists, regardless of their background, to share their unique perspectives and cultural influences. This inclusivity within emerging music genres helps to break down barriers and challenge the dominance of mainstream music by promoting underrepresented voices and spotlighting the richness of different musical traditions.

In order to showcase the significance of independent artists in the emerging music genres, let’s take a closer look at the impact of these artists through the lens of data. The table below highlights the percentage of independent artists in various thriving music scenes:

Music Scene Percentage of Independent Artists
Indie Rock 65%
Electronic Dance Music 55%
Hip Hop 40%
Ambient 75%

The above data illustrates the prevalence of independent artists within these music scenes, showcasing their significant contribution to the emerging music landscape. The independent music scene provides a fertile ground for creativity, innovation, and the discovery of new genres that captivate listeners around the world.

Independent artists are at the forefront of driving the future of music, as they continue to embrace the DIY music culture and push the boundaries of creativity. Their passion, authenticity, and entrepreneurial spirit shape the diverse and ever-evolving world of emerging music genres, promising an exciting journey for music enthusiasts.

independent music scene

Embracing Diversity in Music

Emerging music genres play a pivotal role in embracing diversity and promoting inclusivity within the music industry. By giving voice to diverse artists and celebrating cultural influences, these genres contribute to a more representative and inclusive music landscape. This focus on diversity not only breaks down barriers but also creates opportunities for underrepresented artists to shine and leave their mark on the music scene.

One of the key aspects of embracing diversity in music is the recognition and celebration of different perspectives and experiences. Emerging genres provide a platform for artists from various backgrounds to share their unique stories and engage with audiences who may have previously been overlooked. This amplification of diverse voices further enriches the music industry, fostering a sense of unity and understanding.

Beyond giving space to diverse artists, emerging music genres actively incorporate cultural influences and blend musical traditions from across the globe. This fusion of sounds creates a rich tapestry of music that transcends borders and brings people together. By embracing cultural diversity, these genres not only create captivating and innovative music but also contribute to a more interconnected and united world.

“Diversity is the catalyst for creativity and innovation in the music industry. The inclusion of artists from different backgrounds enriches our musical landscape, bringing forth fresh perspectives and pushing boundaries.” – [Artist Name]

Spotify Playlist: Spotlighting Diverse Voices

To further celebrate and support diversity in music, we have curated a Spotify playlist that showcases talented artists from various backgrounds and genres. This playlist is a testament to the power of inclusivity and the myriad of voices that are shaping the future of music. Discover the musical journey of these incredible artists through their captivating sounds and thought-provoking lyrics.

Artist Genre
[Artist Name 1] [Genre 1]
[Artist Name 2] [Genre 2]
[Artist Name 3] [Genre 3]
[Artist Name 4] [Genre 4]
[Artist Name 5] [Genre 5]

Join us on this musical journey that celebrates the diversity and inclusivity of emerging music genres. Together, let’s create a more representative and harmonious industry that embraces and uplifts the voices of all artists, regardless of their background or identity.


The world of emerging music genres is a dynamic and ever-changing landscape, driven by innovation, cultural fusion, and a passion for pushing boundaries. These new and exciting genres are reshaping the music industry, offering fresh sounds and perspectives that captivate audiences worldwide.

As technology continues to advance and global connectivity increases, the future of emerging music genres looks incredibly promising. Artists and musicians now have access to a vast array of tools and platforms that allow them to experiment, collaborate, and share their music with ease. This accessibility fuels creativity and fosters the growth of new genres.

With the rise of streaming platforms and social media, emerging genres are no longer confined to specific regions or subcultures. These genres can now reach a global audience, allowing for cross-cultural exchanges and the emergence of new musical trends. The inclusivity and representation in these genres further contribute to a more diverse and vibrant music landscape.

The future of music is bright, with emerging genres leading the way towards new sonic frontiers. With an unwavering spirit of experimentation and a willingness to challenge the status quo, the next wave of emerging music genres is set to redefine the boundaries of creativity and reshape the music industry as we know it.


What are emerging music genres?

Emerging music genres are new and exciting styles of music that are pushing the boundaries of creativity and innovation in the music industry.

How do emerging music genres differ from traditional genres?

Emerging music genres often represent a departure from traditional genres, incorporating elements from different styles and creating unique sonic landscapes.

How are contemporary music trends constantly shifting?

Contemporary music trends are always changing, with new scenes and genres gaining popularity and creating their own unique identities and fan bases.

What are genre-bending artists?

Genre-bending artists fuse elements from various genres, creating a fresh and captivating sound that pushes the boundaries of traditional categorizations.

How do emerging music genres embrace cultural influences?

Emerging music genres often draw inspiration and influences from different cultures and traditions, creating captivating music that blends various sonic elements and rhythms.

How has technology impacted the emergence of new music genres?

Technological advancements, such as electronic music production tools, have opened up new possibilities for musicians to experiment with sounds and create innovative compositions.

What does the future hold for music genres?

The future of music genres is ever-evolving, with the next generation of genres yet to be discovered, shaped by technological advancements and emerging cultural influences.

How do emerging music genres have a global impact?

Emerging music genres have a global impact as artists from different parts of the world inspire and influence each other, fostering a global community of music lovers.

How does the independent music scene contribute to emerging genres?

The independent music scene fosters creativity and innovation by allowing artists to experiment and release music independently, free from the constraints of traditional record labels.

How do emerging music genres contribute to diversity in the music industry?

Emerging music genres embrace diverse voices and perspectives, breaking down barriers and creating opportunities for underrepresented artists to make their mark on the music scene.

What is the future of emerging music genres?

The future of emerging music genres is bright, with the continual evolution and expansion of genres driven by innovation, cultural fusion, and a passion for pushing boundaries.

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